Saturday, December 28, 2019
Theology of the Child Children are GodÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest gift to the world. Every day, thousands of millions of children have been neglected not just by their parents, but also by his or her community. Since the beginning of Genesis time, children have always played an important part of humanity. The countless scriptures provided in the Bible give a clear example about the significance of children. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s outlook of children in the Bible extends evidential scriptural truth of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s role in our life as a parent. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s View of Children in the OT At the beginning of time, children were the key point to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan for us, specifically for Him. Genesis 1:27 said, Ã¢â¬Å"So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; maleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is where God first showed His love and compassion for the orphaned in Genesis 21:17-18: Ã¢â¬Å"God heard the boy crying, and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid; God has heard the boy crying as he lies there. Lift the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a great nation.Ã¢â¬ He kept His promise to Abraham that He will bless Ishmael and make him into a prominent nation. God loves the orphans, aliens, and the widows, the defenseless ones we fail to look after and acknowledge. He even says so in Deuteronomy 10:18, Ã¢â¬Å"He defends the cause of the fatherless and the widow, and loves the foreigner residing among you, giving them food and clothing.Ã¢â¬ Those that may seem like they have nothing will always have God on their side. Even if the orphan may not have anyone to instruct the child in the right way, every person is responsible to be help each other out so that no one would wander off the wrong route. Single mother or father should always Ã¢â¬Å"start children off on the way they should go, and even when they are old they will not turn from it,Ã¢â¬ as told by God in Proverb 22:6. Children are to to keep the family generation going. This is one of the numerous reasons why God has blessed so many great men in the Old Testament with an abundant of sons and daughters, which is to extend His kingdom. God his blessed the human population
Friday, December 20, 2019
Identify and explain the major factors in the social environment that create an atmosphere in which business criticism takes place and prospers. dasdasdassadasdasdadadasdadsdadasdasdassssssssssssssssssssss- ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss- ssssssssssssssssssssssscourse? Or is it still a vital reality? 4. Give an example of each of the four levels of power discussed in this chapter. Also, give an example of each of the spheres of business power. 5. Explain in your own words the Iron Law of Responsibility and the social contract. Give an example of a shared understanding between you as a consumer or an employee and a firm with which you do business or for which you work. Is Congress justified in creatingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Chapter 6 1. Which of the major stages in the issues management process do you think is the most important? Why? 2. Following the approach indicated in Figure 6-1, identify a new issue category not listed in Figure 6-1. Identify several examples of crises that have occurred in recent years under each issue category. 3. Identify one example, other than those listed in Figure 6-4, of each of the leading force categories: events, authorities/advocates, literature, organizations, and political jurisdictions. 4. Identify a crisis that has occurred in your life or in the life of someone you know, and briefly explain it in terms of the four crisis stages: prodromal, acute, chronic, and resolution. 5. Do research on the impacts on business organizations of the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the scandals of the early to mid-2000s. What have been successful and unsuccessful examples of crisis management that have come out of this research? Is terrorism a likely crisis for which business may prepare? How does preparation for terrorism (which comes from without) compare with preparation for ethical scandals (which come from within)? Chapter 7 1. Give a definition of ethical business behavior, explain the components involved in making ethical decisions, and give an example from your personal experience of the difficulties involved in making these determinations. 2. To demonstrate that youShow MoreRelatedEssay on managerial ehics1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComplete Discussion Questions 3, 4, and 5 on page 27 of Business and Society. 3. Identify and explain the major factors in the social environment that create an atmosphere in which business criticism takes place and prospers. How are the factors related to one another? Has the revolution of rising expectations run its course? Or is it still a vital reality? Affluence refers to the level of wealth, and standard of living of the society. As the standard of living is increasing every year, peopleRead MoreInfluence Of Uk Company Law, Takeover Regulation And Corporate Governance On Policy Making1238 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory for Corporate LawÃ¢â¬â¢ 89 Georgetown LJ 439 (2001) Critically assess this claim with reference to the influence of UK company law, takeover regulation and corporate governance on policy making in the EU and internationally. Introduction The corporate governance debate has been a global phenomenon, attributed to the increasing deregulation of worldwide capital markets and the expansion of the shareholder class . Such changes have increased awareness of the importance of corporate governance practicesRead MoreBp Is The Largest Multi National Company s Energy Companies1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinto a global energy group, employing over 96,000 people and operates in more than 100 countries worldwide. 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Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about theStatutory Interpretationfor Parks and Gardens Week Act. Answer: The present assignment is based on the statutory interpretation of the Parks and Gardens Week Act 2017 (the Act). This is a state legislation of the state of Victoria in Australia. The assignment is to be done on the basis of a case scenario which involves possible breach of the certain provisions of the current legislation. On the basis of the statutory interpretation, certain issues and questions regarding the case scenarios will be discussed. To answer the question it is necessary that the case has to be understood. Jeremy and Luisa had visited the venue where the Parks and Garden Week was organised. The event was being held in the Caulfield Racecourse. They were in an intoxicated state. Luisa had brought with her 20 medallions with a logo of marijuana plant embossed on it. She had also mentioned an inscription which encouraged smoking of marijuana at the event. They put up a stall under a tree in the event and displayed a laminated sign with the intent of transaction. It was specified that no money would be involved. It would only involve barter or trade. This meant that the medallions would be exchanged for some good. Among the possible buyers who visited the stall there was a warden. He immediately informed the duo that they were not entitled to sell any items within the premises of the event. However they defied his orders and resisted. The officer had to use force and call upon a sergeant. The medallions were c onfiscated. Moreover when they were leaving the place, the warden handed over a penalty notice where they were charged under section 15 and 22 of the Parks and Gardens Week Act 2017. Thus the rules of statutory interpretation have to be applied in the present case scenario to determine whether the following provisions are actually applicable on Jeremy and Luisa or not. Statutory interpretation is done by judges of the courts. The legislations are made by the parliament that is the legislator body of the country. Most of appeals on issues of law result due to anomalies in the statutory interpretation of the courts. The courts have to follow certain processes to determine the meaning of words present in a statute. Firstly they have to see whether the meanings of the words which are under question are clear or not. Often a single word has various meanings. Often the context in which the words are to be interpreted is ambiguous and difficult to understand. The judges have problem in interpreting statutes since if the words are used in the literal sense it would be unjustified and absurd. Often the purpose for which the words of the statute are interpreted causes c onfusion. After the confusion or lack of clarity is identified, the judges try to resolve it. Initially legal statutes and regulations used to be interpreted in the literal sense. However in the recent times the courts are trying to change the interpretation style from literal to purposive. This is to make statutory interpretation more flexible and less rigid. Jeremy and Luisa had contravened section 16 of the act as they had parked their car 500 metres from the venue of the event. As per the provision no care was to be parked within 5 km of the event vicinity. In the present case if the literal approach is used there may be various results. The relevant provision which is levied on Luisa and Jeremy herein is section 15 of the mentioned Act. Herein it is mentioned that an officer can direct any individual selling any article in the restricted area to remove it from the restricted area. However in the instant case, the duo was not selling the medallions. They can claim this aspect as a defence if they are presented before the court. They had displayed their wares for exchange and barter. When the term sell is interpreted in the literal sense it is connected with money. In the present case they were not selling any article for money. Moreover the warden had used physical force on Jeremy to evict them out of the premise of the event that was being held. Jeremy can claim that he was hurt while force was being applied on him. However section 22 of this Act will be applicable on Luisa and Jeremy. This is because they had refused to abide by th e directions of the warden in a peaceful manner and defied his power. Moreover they can also prove that they had taken permission from the agency to display the medallions in the vicinity of the event. Jeremy and Luisa can also question the authority of the warden as he did not show any identification card which is supposed to be held by him as per the requirements of section 21 of the concerned Act. In the present question it is showed that Jeremy had objected to the treatment meted out to him by the officer present in the venue. He considered the approach to be rough and unjustified. Moreover according to him the police did not have the right to confiscate the medallions from Luisa. In order to answer this issue, the contents and provisions of section 15 and powers of a warden has to be examined as per this Act. Description regarding the appointment and powers of a warden is provided in section 21 of the Act. Under subsection 4 of section 15 authorised officers are given the power to give directions to people selling articles in the regulated zone to remove them within a certain time. The individual asked to do so have to follow such orders. If they fail or refuse to follow such orders they are subject to penalty. This is shown in subsection 5 of section 15 of the concerned Act. The most significant aspect pertaining to the concerned allegation is mentioned in sub section 6 of section 15. It says that if the individual refuses or fails to follow the direction of the officer to remove the article, the article is liable for forfeiture and the concerned officer has the right to seize the article. The powers and appointment of wardens is mentioned in section 21 of the concerned Act. As per the provisions, the warden has to be appointed by an agency to carry out duties to serve the purpose of the concerned legislation. The functions and powers exercised by the warden are conferred upon by the provisions and contents of the act and the regulations. The warden has to carry an identification card which is to be provided by the agency which appoints him or her. The identification card has to prove the fact that it has been issued to the warden as per the provisions of the concerned Act. It should mention the name of the person holding it and the kind of powers that are provided to him. The warden can put forward certain defences against the allegations levied by Luisa and Jeremy. He can prove before the magistrate that whatever he had done was under the duties conferred to him. He can use the other sergeant as a witness to prove that the friends resisted his authority and refused to move from the place. He has to prove that no harm was caused to Jeremy during his exercise of force. Moreover he also has to prove that since they had refused to remove the articles even after his intimation to them, he was forced as per law to confiscate them. There is another character present in the case scenario i.e. Sharona. In the present case it is shown that she was operating a drone which captured videos of the events that were taking place in the Caulfield racecourse. With respect to this act of her, the provisions of section 17 can be applied. This particular section speaks about control of the space in the air. As per the provisions of this section an individual is prohibited from entering an aircraft while the Park and Gardens Week event is going on. Moreover he or she is not allowed to operate the aircraft within the air space that is restricted without a clearance obtained from the concerned agency that is conducting the event. If the person does so he or she is liable to face penalty as per the provisions of this Act. This particular section excludes the use of military and police aircraft used for security, military and contingency situations. Moreover if the aircraft is used solely for the purpose of human safety and pr operty safeguard, the provisions of the section 17 would not be applicable. In the present case the confusion that arises is that whether drone could be included within the definition of aircraft. If it is included within the definition, Sharona has to prove that she had obtained prior permission from the concerned agency for operating it. Moreover she had contravened section 10 subsection 3 of the Act. She had entered a road which had a barrier and a sign showing that it was closed and it was only to be used for vehicles. She had also contravened with subsection 4 and 5 of the same section. She does not seem to have any defence for this. Bibliography Anderson, J.C., "Misleading Like A Lawyer: Cognitive Bias In Statutory Interpretation" (2013) 127Harv. L. Rev Carney, G, "Comparative Approaches To Statutory Interpretation In Civil Law And Common Law Jurisdictions." (2015) 36Statute law review Christiansen, Matthew R. and William N. Eskridge Jr., "Congressional Overrides Of Supreme Court Statutory Interpretation Decisions, 19672011" (2014) 92Texas Law Review Hofmann, N., "Interpretation Rules And Good Faith As Obstacles To The UK's Ratification Of The CISG And To The Harmonization Of Contract Law In Europe" (2010) 22Pace Int'l L. Rev MacCormick, D.N. and R. S. Summers,Interpreting Statutes: A Comparative Study(Routledge, 1st ed, 2016) McCormack, S.W., "Tax Shelters And Statutory Interpretation: A Much Needed Purposive Approach" (2012) 2009University of Illinois Law Review Nourse, Victoria, "A Decision Theory Of Statutory Interpretation: Legislative History By The Rules" (2012) 122Yale Law Journal Sanson, M,Statutory Interpretation(Oxford University Press, 1st ed, 2012) Szewczyk, Bart M.J., "Customary International Law And Statutory Interpretation: An Empirical Analysis Of Federal Court Decisions" (2014) 82George Washington Law Review Villiers, L, "Breaking In The Unruly Horse: The Status Of Mandatory Rules Of Law As A Public Policy Basis For The Non-Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards" (2011) 18Austl. Int'l LJ
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
The disease infects the sick persons body. The stigma of the disease affects everyone. In Chandas Secret, people are afraid of HIV/AIDS. They were so scared, even the word is forbidden word.Ã They say that other thing instead of AIDS. Everyone around her started to die suddenly because they were infected by AIDS. Her step-father Jonah, best friend EstherÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, Mrs. TafaÃ¢â¬â¢s son and ChandaÃ¢â¬â¢s youngest sister Sara, she was very affected by her younger sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s death as they were very poor so they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford money for the coffin of Sara. When EstherÃ¢â¬â¢s parent died, Esther and her younger siblings were affected by the death of their parents as they were very poor. So Esther and her sibling had to separate away from each other. And the only way Esther could made money was to become a prostitute. Mrs. Tafa says that her son Emmanuel died from a hunting accident but at the end she admitted that her son died from stigma as his test come out positive. We will write a custom essay sample on Chandas Secret or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So he could not handle it so he had to shot himself. Mrs. Tafa lied about her son ; death to hide from the shame and disrespect to her family. The stigma of the disease keeps everyone silent. Taking the test is scary. But living with the disease is worse. (145). People were afraid of knowing the truth. They prefer to live in fear than to know the truth. The stigma has taken all the courage from the people. People such as Esther and Lillian do not want to ask for help. They have several reasons to keep their sickness in secret. First of all, they were afraid that when people know they talk about them. Ã¢â¬Å"She has the disease, Gods curse. . People think getting HIV is a punishment from God of having too much sex. Their family, neighbors and friend look down on them. They think that person is sleeping with anyone. They think they are dirty or impure. Second, their family thinks that person dishonors their family and ancestor. They think the person is a shame for the family. The family wont recognize the person as a member of the family. And the last one, they think telling the truth, people around them wont love him/her anymore. They leave the person alone. All these factors make them live in the shadow and with stigma. Every day technology improves and new inventions are discovered. Maybe in the future they might find a cure to fight against AIDS. So that people can live without stigma and fear and get hope that they can be cure from AIDS. Elvin Renghen
Thursday, November 28, 2019
11 Signs YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve Ã¢â¬Å"Made ItÃ¢â¬ in America Have you been plugging away nonstop, gunning for success, for years? Maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been trying really hard to be the big shot you know you can be, but you just arenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure when you can take a moment to rest on your laurels and give yourself a pat on the back. Here are a few signs that youÃ¢â¬â¢re well on your way to- if not already- living the new American Dream.1. You have a job.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t discount this accomplishment in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy- particularly not if youÃ¢â¬â¢re still in your twenties. As long as youÃ¢â¬â¢re on that ladder somewhere, and can pay your bills and health insurance, rent your own space, and feed yourself decently healthy food, youÃ¢â¬â¢re well on your way. Being able to take care of your own basic needs is not to be undervalued.2. People respect you.YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained respect the right way, by proving yourself to be trustworthy, decent, honest, and a good listener. More than that, people listen to you when you speak and value your o pinions.3. You have hobbies.Hobbies mean you do more than just drink your paycheck and waste time with your friends. They mean you have enough leisure time in addition to your career to pursue other, non-work-related passions. Congrats, youÃ¢â¬â¢re becoming a whole person.4. You can travel.If you can afford to take a trip without breaking the bank- a real vacation, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made it. If you can take multiple trips per year, some abroad, then, well, youÃ¢â¬â¢re totally living the dream. And if you can fly first class?5. You have goals.Whether career, personal, or material, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got end points and milestones in mind and are constantly working towards them.6. You own stuff.Do you own your apartment or house, or a car? Either way, no matter how fancy, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve really gotten to a majorly mature and successful place. Congrats!7. You can afford stuff.YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not in a blind panic about how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll afford retirement or your kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ private school o r college education. You might not have it all sorted out, but you have a plan, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re saving away as much as possible.8. You have money in your accounts.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard enough to live paycheck to paycheck in your twenties. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s even harder to break out of that habit and carry a healthy balance month to month. If you have more than $7k in your checking account, youÃ¢â¬â¢re basically killing it. And if you have over $30k in your savings, you are doing extraordinarily well.9. You have a second home.If you have a holiday home, no matter how rustic, youÃ¢â¬â¢re already in the elite set of second-home owners. You own Ã¢â¬Å"luxury real estate!Ã¢â¬ ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s huge!10. You can pay for stuff.If a new gadget comes out, or you want to take a weekend trip, or pick up the tab for a group dinner out, you can do so without tons of hemming and hawing. You never have to go to the ladiesÃ¢â¬â¢ room to check your bank balance on your phone- you just lay down that cash w ithout cringing.11. You shop at the fancy grocery store.If you can do regular shops at Whole Paycheck, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re really doing well in this world. So buy yourself that eight dollar juice and walk smugly through the aisles. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve really made it.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Analytical Marriage and Young Girl Essay Analytical: Marriage and Young Girl Essay Young and the Restless In Angela CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s work, The Bloody Chamber, many tools are used to illustrate a dynamic young girl with an eager mind full of curiosity. The combinations of the tone and symbolism the reader can find reveal a great theme of this fairytale like short story of love, death and the path to independence. The use of figurative language and extremely descriptive imagery helps the reader to understand the sympathy and admiration of the main character is narrating in this piece. All of the tools combined set a great plot and imaginative mood for the audience. From the very beginning of this story, the narrator gives the audience the knowledge of how much she has changed. She is reminiscing on the early days right before her marriage as a poor young Ã¢â¬Å"childÃ¢â¬ living with her widowed mom. She transitions into a bride of an older rich man, and she feels a bit of guilt for her mother by ceasing Ã¢â¬Å"to be her child in becoming his wife (111).Ã¢â¬ Sympathy can be found betw een this mother daughter relationship. The mother is wary for her daughter because like any mother, she would not want her daughter going into a marriage with a man whom she does not love. When the love is questioned, the young girl dances around the question by saying she is sure that she wants to marry him. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all; she never says anything to reassure her mom of any love for this wealthy man. The only time she feels that she might be sure of loving him is when they go to the opera and she is so full of joy from the art that she mistakenly uses that as a sign. The specific details of her life let the reader know so much that it only fits to understand the characters exactly how Carter wants the reader to perceive them. The details about how the mother came to be widowed, how Marquis came to court the young girl, and her own thoughts about everything in her life changing. It appears to be that the young girl is so overcome with excitement and joy to be chased after, espec ially by a man of his own wealth that she hastily engages to him without really getting to Ã¢â¬Å"know himÃ¢â¬ . Because of many details we are given, we automatically can see that the timing of these occurrences is of an early date when this was socially acceptable to marry for the social and financial ladder. Another hint of the time set being an older one is the fact that transportation is used by trains, carriage, the old telephones and talk of the opera. One of the biggest symbols we see that foreshadow disaster is how the young girl keeps comparing her fiancÃ ©, Marquis, to white lilies. The funeral lilies are beautiful yet tense and emotionless as he is. She describes him to hold himself and compose his emotions so much that the little curve in his mouth indicating a smile or a long sigh of relief makes her believe that he truly wants her so badly. Yet these also show her hesitation and mistrust for him. He also has filled the bedroom with so many lilies that it would seem to foreshadow her own funeral to come after their consummation of their marriage. The gift that he gives her, the red ruby choker, is another big symbol that is noticed. The red rubies around her neck are so deeply colored it could probably resemble blood, give the idea of strangulation or a slit throat. The fact that he loves for her to wear it and he Ã¢â¬Å"kissed them before he kissed her mouth (121)Ã¢â¬ shows his fetish he has of this strange resemblance and how much he loves his wealth. Another disastrous event that turns the whole story is when he decides to give her keys to everything in the house, even his Ã¢â¬Å"private denÃ¢â¬ which he tells her she must not go into. He goes on and on about how if she really loves him sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll leave the room alone, with this he is using a psychological tactic to make her do the exact opposite of what he says. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh and youÃ¢â¬â¢d find it such a dull little room! (124)Ã¢â¬ he says, this is something to say that would entice her to go into the room while he is away. This would spark the curiosity that
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Critically discuss the business case for diversity and inclusion by drawing on academic theories, research evidence and practice - Essay Example In addition, the business rationale behind embracing a diverse workforce will be also underlined. Finally the popularity and benefits that an organization draws for having diverse and inclusive workforce will be portrayed. The discussion section will illustrate the effect of diversity and inclusion on the factors such as -corporate success, profit, innovation, risk, creativity, individuality, experience and personality of employee. Also some of other aspects of diversity an inclusion will be underpinned. The management of diversity at the micro level, macro level and meso level will be also discussed. Furthermore, challenges pertaining to the implementation of diversity will be also examined. Based on the findings from different sources, a conclusion will be drawn that will mark the importance and benefits of a having a diverse and inclusive workforce. Finally some suggestions for managing and encouraging diversity in an organization will be provided. Background There will be only fe w people in this world who will disagree with the fact that positive relationship with colleagues and having respect for each other promotes better working environment and results in higher productivity. A number of organizations around the world proudly exhibit their espoused values like teamwork, individual dignity, integrity and respect among the employees (Bailne, 2007, p.2). They also have a sense of harmony throughout the organization. However there are also organizations which face several complexities in maintaining the workforce and internal harmony. The employees of those organizations are faced with large number of obstacles in carrying out their day to day activities. These issues do not arises for less qualification or low performance levels, rather it generates for some group membership activities. Several scholars stresses on the fact that the only way to curb such occurrences is implementation of workforce diversity and creating an inclusive workforce. Organizations should try their level best to embrace diversity in their human resources. Thus considering the present business environment there is a need for a shift in paradigm for the way organizations look towards the subject of creating and maintaining a diverse and inclusive workforce. Defining Diversity Diversity is a broader aspect. From the perspective of human resource of an organization, diversity signifies having employees from different segments of the society. It is therefore defined as the element or aspect which is being used by the organizations to differentiate people and group from each other. This comes in the form of national origin, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, education and disability. Nevertheless diversity in an organization does not remain constrained with those elements only. It also takes into account life style, working experience and culture. Hence diversity is considered as a Ã¢â¬Ëbig ideaÃ¢â¬â¢ or a Ã¢â¬Ëbig thingÃ¢â¬â¢ in a society as well as in a business venture. Moreover, it help organizations to embrace large variety of people within the system (Gatrell and Swan, 2008, p.3). Defining Inclusion Inclusion is the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
#6 - Case Study Example With regard to its definition, a visionary leader is a leader who is able to articulate their dream for an organization and inspire followers, allowing them to move together towards a shared dream of the future. The basis of my definition is that the ultimate role of visionary leadership is facilitative and an ideal principal is often to merely facilitate the vision rather than single handedly transforming an organization (school) within a given period of time (Mendels, 2012, P.55, Column 2, L. 2). As seen in the case study, Susan is seen alluding to a community culture means she is indirectly calling to attention the important of the beliefs, values as well as the collective thoughts of those who belonged to the broader community of the school. This is likely to be based on her strong personal belief that developing a school vision is a collective responsibility that should be carried out by all members and stakeholders of the broader school community. Generally, the potential conflict between professionalism and democracy often take a number of forms. Democracies often require taking into account the opinions of other members of an organization before making decisions. However, this may result in a time consuming bureaucratic process that may negatively affect efficiency and professionalism in the school or organization as more time may be required and compromise may have to be reached. For Example, during administrative decision making, responsiveness may require adherence to professionalism while the principle of democratic accountability demands adherence to the popular will or democracy (West-Burnham, 2003, P. 10, L.7). Based on my knowledge of school administration, the role that the principal plays in the building of the school vision is simply be participate and facilitate reaching a consensus on a vision that reflect the collective thoughts of the broader school community as opposed to single handedly
Sunday, November 17, 2019
What factors led to the end of the Cold War - Assignment Example There are two major factors that were known to have led to the end of it all. One of the major factors was the leadership of the United States under President Ronald Reagan. It was, as many people say, President Ronald Reagans willpower and drive to rise up against the Soviet Union and make an effort in strengthening and improving the aptitude and skill of the US military. The Iron Curtain ultimately was left defeated, because they could no longer compete. Reagan added political, military, and financial weight on the Soviet Union, which was by that time were ill with serious commercial unproductivity. The USSR collapsed and fell in 1991. This left the United States as the leading military supremacy. Another major factor was the reforms attempted by Gorbachev. In 1987, he declared an program of economic reformation called perestroika, or restructuring. In addition, he instantaneously presented glasnost, or openness, which added liberty of the media and the transparency of national organizations. These efforts did not do much to resume the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s already lethargic economy. The changes devolved things to a certain degree. The Russian ruble was inconvertible. Perestroika led to the creation of new holdups in the Soviet financial system. By 1990, the administration had essentially lost its control over the dying economic
Friday, November 15, 2019
Disability and Ageing Theories Comparison Task One : Comparing a range of definitions as they apply to Disability and Aging 1.1 Disability according to WHO According to the World Health Organization, Ã¢â¬Å" Disabilities is a term that covers impairments, restrictions in participations and limitations in ones activity. An impairment is seen as a problem in body function and itÃ¢â¬â¢s structure; a limitation in activity is a difficulty an individual may encounter when performing an action or task; while the restriction in participation is a problem in an individuals life situation.Ã¢â¬ As stated on this source, disability is seen as not just a health problem but a complex phenomenon that shows the interaction between features of a persons body and features of society that they live in. It is said that people with disabilities has the same health needs as of those as non-disabled people, like for example disabled people also need immunizations, cancer screenings and treatments for other medical conditions, illnesses or diseases that they might have. b) Disability according to SSC State Services Commission of NZ The New Zealand Disability Strategy describes disability as, Ã¢â¬Å"Individuals do not have disability instead what individuals have are impairments. And these impairments may be physical,sensory,psychiatric,neurlogical, intelletual or other impairments. When people creates barriers the disability process happens because they take no account of people living with impairments in ther world.Ã¢â¬ According to this, disability is only a perceived idea , of how non-impaired people view people with impairments. And if people would change their view of impaired individuals then people that has disability would just be people that has impairments and they will be able to function in society if we give them an environment they can work around with. c) Disability according Government of Western Australia / Disabilities Services Commission According to the Disabilities Services Commission of Western Australia , Ã¢â¬Å" A disability is a condition that continues on to restrict activities in the everyday life. They define disability as: Being attributed to an intellectual,psychiatric,cognitive,neurolgical,sensory or physical impairment Permanent or may likely be permanent Chronic or acute Reduced capacity of an individual to cmmunicate, interact socially, learn, move and wil need continouos support.Ã¢â¬ As stated on this source , disability is an impairment that will restrict a persons movement and functioning that is caused by a multitude of physiological and external factors. It is said that most restrictions that people with disability may encounter can be overcome by using appropriate tools and utilizing services specifically designed for their impairments. In your own words compare those definitions and identify the similarities and differences between them According to the sources I have used, they define disability as being attributed to a multitude of impairments such as an intellectual, psychiatric, cognitive, neurological, sensory or physical impairment or a combination of those impairments that makes them unable to perform certain tasks effectively or none at all. It is stated that a person with a disability has the reduced ability to communicate , interact , learn and move and will be needing assistance in their daily lives. But the sources also gave different views and definitions on how they view disability. One of those differences is that according to the State Services Commission of New Zealand, a disability is a process and not a condition, therefore a person is disabled only because of the perception of society and their attitudes towards people that have impairments. Society does provide them an environment in which they can become productive and function with the abilities they possess, instead society views them as people that cannot contribute and has no useful abilities. Another difference is that according to WHO disability is categorized under two terms, which are impairment and limitations. Impairment is seen as a problem in the way the body, parts of the body or a specific part of the body fail to function, while limitation is seen as difficulty in performing certain tasks or actions. The Disabilities Services Commission of the Government of Western Australia see disability as being chronic or a condition that has endured and will endure for a long time and acute which means an abrupt onset or occurrence of an impairment. They view disability as being one of permanent or temporary nature. 1.2 Comparing 3 (three) definitions of aging Aging according to US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Aging According to the National Institute on Aging of the US Department of Health and Human Services aging is defined as , Ã¢â¬Å" Aging is a reflection of all the changes that occur all throughout our lives. As we grow, develop and mature. For young people aging wil be exciting because they will have late bedtimes and longer curfew hours. And during middle age there might be a grey hair or two. For a marathon runner he will not be able to run as fast like when he was 20 now that he is 60. There are varying factors that will affect aging.Ã¢â¬ As defined in this source, aging is a reflection of all the changes that happens through the course of our entire life. The growth, development and maturity which thus entails that aging in a broad sense is a change in our biology, our psychology, our environment and our cognitive abilities. b) Aging according to senescence.info , author Joao Pedro de Magalhaes, PHD According to the author on senescence.info , Ã¢â¬Å" Aging can be just a passing of time and seen a just a normal biological process of getting older. Some people call this senescence. And some have defined it as a progress in which humans will inevitably die. Aging is viewed as a complex process that is composed of three features: 1) Increase in likelihood of death as we age; 2) changes within the body that will lead to deterioration of internatl functions and 3) the increased risk of catching infections and diseases as people age. It is a progressive decline in bodily functions, and it is an intricate process of life.Ã¢â¬ As defined on this source, aging is described as leading to the process of death or mortality due to the biological process of growing older, as the body loses the ability to function with efficiency and it becomes vulnerable to environmental factors including illnesses and diseases. c) Aging according to Age and Aging Journal , Auckland Library , Digital Library According to the journal , Ã¢â¬Å" Aging is the result of a complex interaction of the genetic make up and the environment we live in. As people age it is but normal to suffer certain diseases and illnesses so we cannot discount it as a factor in the aging process. Aging may also be explained as the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to stress that can lead to physical and chemical damage, infections and trauma. Aging can also be attributed as a by product of action in the genes or the natural selection process that deteriorates as we age.Ã¢â¬ According to this source , aging is defined as the chemical processes that occur within the cellular level of our bodies and the various factors of genes, gene mutations and the different phenotypes which affect how our bodies change in accordance with the cellular changes that occur during the Aging process. In your own words compare those definitions and identify the similarities and differences between them According to the sources I have used, they define Aging as a complex process affected by varying physiological, biological, environmental and social factors that contribute on how Aging progresses. They state that Aging is not only about the external characteristics of our physicality, like the changing color of our hair or the wrinkling of our skin, but a more in depth analysis reveals that a lot of factors that we encounter in our lives affect the Aging process. Some differences on how the sources define Aging can be seen with how the National Institute of Aging view it in a more positive way. They state that Aging is attributed to how a person grows, develops and matures through the course of life. Therefore, they view Aging as a state of mind , an accumulation of knowledge and experiences as one goes through life. However according to Joao Pedro de Magalhaes, PHD on senescence.info Aging is more on the most basic and primal note. According to his research, Aging is a gradual and progressive decline in how well our body functions over time, our bodys susceptibility to illnesses and diseases as we grow older because our immune system will weaken as we age and that Aging is an inevitable path leading towards death. The Age and Aging Journal defines Aging on a cellular level. Stating that as part of Aging process diseases and illnesses contribute on how we age. And the level of Aging is widely affected by our genes, how genes mutate and phenotypes which affect how our body will change according to the cellular changes inside us during the Aging process. 1.3 Comparing theories of disability and aging Disability Theory The Medical Model The Medical Model defines disability as being caused by an illness or medical condition. It is said that disability is directly caused by trauma, disease, or other health conditions and people that have disabilities need sustained medical care provided by professionals. The Medical Model promotes the view that a disabled person is someone who is dependent on others and needs care to be provided to them. Aging Theory Psychosocial Theory Psychosocial theories of Aging states that Aging is correlated to human development such as an individuals change in cognitive functions, behaviours, roles, relationships and coping ability and social changes. This theory does not describe how older people could be treated or what the social changes are but they describe what Aging implies and factors important to the care of older people can be derived from this factors. Age is the period in time in which a person has been living Gender refers to the roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that society deem appropriate for a man and a woman Class is an individual or groups position within hierarchal social structure. It is associated with socio-economic status including variables such as occupation, education, income, wealth and place or residence. 4. Ethnicity refers to a persons language, culture, history, socio-economic and political factors, geographic origin of ancestry, nationality and beliefs and traditional practices. 1. AGE Age in relation to the Medical Model in Disability Age is the period in time in which a person has been living, and according to the Medical Model a disability is caused by trauma, disease or other health conditions. The implication of age in relation to the Medical Model is that, as a person grow older or age our bodys immune system becomes weaker as do our bones and muscles, this makes older persons susceptible to infections and diseases therefore causing disability. For example a 20 year old persons lung is much more stronger than an 85 year old, therefore if both of them are exposed to pneumonia there is a high probability that the 85 year old person will die and the 20 year old will just need some medications and he will be alright. Age in relation to Psychosocial Theory in Aging Age is the period in time in which a person has been living, and according to the Psychosocial Theory of Aging , it is said that Aging is correlated to the human development including the change in cognitive functions, behaviours, roles, relationships and coping ability and social changes. The implication of age in relation to the Psychosocial Theory of Aging is that as a person grows older so does his/her abilities and knowledge, collection of memories and emotions that shape a persons personality and how he/she views life, life experiences and the social circle they move around in contribute to how a person ages. GENDER Gender in relation to the Medical Model in Disability Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women, and according to the Medical Model a disability is caused by trauma, disease or other health conditions. The implication of gender in relation to the Medical Model is that since society dictates what should and should not be done according to gender, the diseases and types of trauma that a male and female will have that will lead to disability will be different for a male and a female. For example in terms of trauma, in Saudi Arabia females are not allowed to drive vehicles and only males are allowed to, therefore there will be a markedly increased number of trauma cases for male leading to disability than females. Gender in relation to the Psychosocial Theory in Aging Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women, and according to the Psychosocial Theory of Aging , it is said that Aging is correlated to the human development including the change in cognitive functions, behaviours, roles, relationships and coping ability and social changes. The implication of gender in relation to the Psychosocial Theory is that a male and female will have different life experiences, developments in cognitive functioning, behaviours, roles relationships and coping ability and social changes so the way that they will age will be different from each other. One example of this is regarding roles and relationships, coping ability and social changes in a Muslim culture like Saudi Arabia. A male can interact with anyone they want to interact with and there is no restriction regarding this, but females are not allowed to talk to males that are not their husband or immedia te family member. Therefore the females have less exposure to the outside world and their coping abilities in social situations will be poor compared to the males and this will reflect on how they age. CLASS Class in relation to the Medical Model in Disability Class is an individuals affiliation within a social hierarchical structure that is associated with an individuals socio-economic status. and according to the Medical Model a disability is caused by trauma, disease or other health conditions. The implication of class in relation to the Medical Model is that, the type of trauma, disease or other health condition leading to disability that a person may have will depend on where he is in the socio-economic structure. An example of this will be a person of low socio-economic background contracts diabetes. Since he is of low socio-economic status he will be unable to seek medical attention, purchase and take medications, and eat a healthy diet, he can suffer from kidney failure as a complication and therefore be unable to work and this will cause disability. Whereas a person of high socio-economic status can easily access medical care and attend to all his needs and his diabetes would not lead to complications and become a disability if he will follow medical advice. Class in relation to the Psychosocial Theory in Aging Class is an individuals affiliation within a social hierarchical structure that is associated with an individuals socio-economic status, and according to the Psychosocial Theory of Aging , it is said that Aging is correlated to the human development including the change in cognitive functions, behaviours, roles, relationships and coping ability and social changes. The implication of class in relation to the Psychosocial Theory is that, the quality of life of a person , of how he ages and develops through his life will depend on his socio-economic status.For example, a person of high socio-economic status is said to be a person who can age well, because of financial stability he is able to access services that are not available to a person of low socio-economic status. He has the capability and capacity to sustain his cognitive improvements and sustain all levels of development throughout his life. His life experiences will be enriched and he can achieve quality Aging. ETHNICITY Ethnicity in relation to the Medical Model in Disability Ethnicity refers to a persons language, culture, history, socio-economic and political factors, geographic origin of ancestry, nationality and beliefs and traditional practices, and according to the Medical Model a disability is caused by trauma, disease or other health conditions. The implication of ethnicity on the Medical Model is that the type of disease or trauma a person may have will depend on his ethnical background. There are certain diseases that will lead to disability that affects only a certain ethnic group due to genetics, diet and cultural practices. For example people of African origin has prevalent cases of sickle anemia, instead of a round red blood cell , the red bloods are shaped like a crescent moon, which causes them to lump together and block blood vessels which causes severe pain to the person affected. The pain they experience usually lasts for hours or some even for days. Ethnicity in relation to the Psychosocial Theory in Aging Ethnicity refers to a persons language, culture, history, socio-economic and political factors, geographic origin of ancestry, nationality and beliefs and traditional practices, and according to the Psychosocial Theory of Aging , it is said that Aging is correlated to the human development including the change in cognitive functions, behaviours, roles, relationships and coping ability and social changes. The implication of ethnicity in relation to aging is that how a person ages is affected by a persons ethnical background. Because people from different parts of the world have practices that are unique to them, this will affect their development and their aging process. How they live their day to day lives and how they deal with the daily experiences will vary according to their culture. References WHO. (2014). Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/disabilities/en/ State Services Commission of NZ. (2014). Chapter One: Defining disability. Retrieved from http://www.ssc.govt.nz/node/1671 Disabilities Services Commission , Government of Western Australia. (2014). What is Disability. Retrieved from http://www.disability.wa.gov.au/understanding-disability1/understanding-disability/what-is-disability/ National Institute on Aging, US Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Biology of Aging, What is Aging?. Retrieved from http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/aging-under-microscope/what-aging De Magalhaes, J.P. (2013) What is Aging. Retrieved from http://www.senescence.info/aging_definition.html#Demographic_Measurements_of_Aging Dyer, Christopher A.E., and Alan J. Sinclair. (1998). The premature ageing syndromes: insights into the ageing process. Age and Ageing 27.1 (1998): 73+. GALE|A21113303 . Student Resources in Context. Retrieved from http://0-ic.galegroup.com.www.elgar.govt.nz/ic/suic/AcademicJournalsDetailsPage/AcademicJournalsDetailsWindow?failOverType=query=prodId=SUICwindowstate=normalcontentModules=mode=viewdisplayGroupName=Journalslimiter=u=auclibcurrPage=disableHighlighting=falsedisplayGroups=sortBy=source=search_within_results=p=SUICaction=ecatId=activityType=scanId=documentId=GALE|A21113303 WHO. (2014). Gender. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gender/whatisgender/en/ Jaqueline Villaflores
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Resolving the Global Warming Problem "It is our attitude at the beginning of a difficult task which, more than anything else will effect the outcome." Global Warming according to Microsoft Bookshelf nineteen ninety eight edition is " A conjectural greenhouse effect on earth that is attributed to deforestation and industrial air emissions"(MS Bookshelf 98). Global Warming could be one of the most important issues of the century. As global warming becomes more and more of an issue, the factors surrounding global warming need to be dealt with. The world is beginning to show that if something is not done about global warming serious side effects can occur. At first impression someone might think that global warming does not effect everyday life, but the current situation with global warming cannot be ignored. Humans could be in serious danger because global warming destroys the earth?s ecology and effects everyday life by creating an unhealthy environment. The important issue of global warming is that the greenhouse problem is recognized and we try to do our best to solve the problem. The effects of global warming could create an ecological disaster. The underlying fact that the greenhouse effect will have serious effects on humans is very relevant. During the next century the earth?s atmospheric temperature is expected to rise between one and nine degrees. The problems with the rise in the earth?s temperature could be extraordinary. Several things could happen when the earth?s temperature rises. A major problem would be the melting of the polar ice caps. If the ice caps melt the current sea level could be raised by as much as "six to thirty seven inches," during a one hundred-year period (FORTUNE 129). When the sea rises th... ...ruary 1998: 67- 73. Parrish, Michael. "Meteorological Mayhem; So, What?s Behind All this Weird Weather." Playboy December 1998: 118-122, 210-211. Reynolds, Patrick. "Solar Power Players." Time 5 October, 1998. Scott, Alex. "BP Experiments with CO2 Emissions Trading." 28 October, 1998. Stripp, David. "Trouble in the Air." Fortune 8 December1997: 113-120 Schelling, Thomas C. Some Economics of Global Warming. The American Economic Review 82. 1-14. Ward, Peter D. "The Greenhouse Extiction; Evidence of Greenhouse Effect on Dinosaur Fossils." Discover August 1998: 54-58 Wilson, Jim. "Global Warming Wildcard; Science; connection between sunspots and Earth?s Climate." Popular Mechanics September 1998: 44-45. Zimmer, Carl; Kunzig Robert. "Carbon Cuts and Techno-fixes: 10 things to do about the Greenhouse Effect Some of Which Aren?t Crazy." Discover June 1998: 60-68.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Mass media refers collectively to all the media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. There are various forms of mass media such as radio, television, movies, magazines, newspapers and the World Wide Web. Mass Media enjoys a very prominent role in our lives and thus, it is believed to influence our society. There are positive and negative effects of mass media on our society. This essay will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mass media and state if the advantage or disadvantage outweighs the other. The first advantage of mass media is that it promotes democracy. Talk shows and debates that are conducted on the radio gives people chance to voice out their opinions and express their views of ideas about a particular issue. This use of radios makes it a Ã¢â¬Å"free market place of ideasÃ¢â¬ where people get informed of the multiple ideas that can be learned about a topic. Also this advantage of mass media allows arguments to be otherwise of the discussed perspective of an issue to voice out the contrasting feelings of people without the fear of being pointed to by the authorities if opinions are subjective. Moreover, free press keeps the government under constant monitoring and checks. It helps the general public to question issues that highlight policy failures, maladministration, scandals and corruptions and this makes mass media the voice of the disadvantaged. A long tradition of liberal theorists claimed that a free and independent press within a nation can play a vital rol e in the process of democratization by contributing towards the right of expression, thought and conscience, strengthening the responsiveness of government to all citizens and providing a pluralist platform of political expression for a multiplicity of groups. Thus, radio being an example shows the positive relationship between mass media and democracy. Read more: Advantages and Disadvantages of Mass Media Furthermore, mass media promotes health education. A way in which societies can grow is through good health and studies assert that media has a responsibility to help people live a healthy life. In Uganda, for instance, FM radios conducted programs where medical doctors were invited to a programÃ to talk about general or specific diseases, their causes, symptoms and how to avoid these diseases or where to seek treatment. Namely, Radio-Wa conducted a program, Meet The Doctor, on which a doctor from Lira Hospital appeared every Sunday from 5.00 pm and discussed popular medical issues, such as, current health problems of reproductive health diseases and sexually transmitted diseases, for about an hour. Through another research, it was found that radio listeners took active part in these kinds of programs and they were able to learn about many diseases that they were suffering from unknowingly. Majority of the listeners were able to cure their diseases. Thus, mass media assists people to keep informed about medical and health issues. In addition, mass media plays a very vital role in accounting for agricultural trade. Radio, one of the fastest forms of mass communication, has been used in communicating farm information to farmers for a long time and since then radio has been used as a mass communication for agricultural development. Rural communities need information on supply of input, early warning systems for drought and diseases, new technologies and market price and information about their competitors. Such information through mass media contributes to the expansion of agriculture. After looking at factor such as the continuing expansion of market oriented agriculture and the increasing complexity of input requirements, studies suggested that there is a need for a continues education of farmers and extensions and thus concluded that radios and television would be a good way to disseminate information to them. Another research showed that 58 % of the respondents regarded radio as the most effective channel fo r dissemination of agricultural information. Thus information about trade from mass media would likely result in benefiting the whole economy along side with the entrepreneurs of such trading businesses. On the other hand, mass media broadcasts negative information to teen agers, especially females, about sex related topics. Movies and televisions are two examples of sources from where teens absorb information about sex and sexuality. These sources give unrealistic images of the portrayed topics. A study shows that an average teen ager is exposed to approximately 14000Ã references of sex of which less than a percent of the references imply information about abstinence, birth control, pregnancy risks, and sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, mass media uses females as sex objects. In most music videos, females are approximately half the time dressed in clothes that expose their breast and rear ends. The sexual attractiveness of music videos and similar imaged mass media encourages teens as well as adults to expose themselves in public, inviting them to become victims of unethical crimes, such as, rape. Moreover, mass media depicts non realistic body images. This disadvantage of mass media depiction leads majority of the viewers toward unhealthy eating habits. Young people are getting encouraged by skinny models on the TV to lose weight and get their body into a sexy image. Researchers are claiming that males are becoming more insecure about their physical appearance as advertisements are painting images of idealistic well built muscular body. A study found that girls as young as eight years old are weight conscious and are on strict diets. Many other females smoke to keep their weight off and through research, it is found out that there is approximately 400% increase in eating disorder since 1970.Like females, boys also tend to smoking to lose weight. A survey by Teens Magazine reported that 27% of the females felt that media pressured them to have a perfect body and 69% of girls state that magazine models influence their thought of being slim and slender. MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in po rtraying unrealistic images of body figures can lead to serious health problems and deadly diseases as attendants to media are evidently being influenced by the false images. In addition, mass media promotes gender and racial unfairness in a society. Women, through media, are treated in disrespectful manners and are referred by the use of unethical words, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"a whoreÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"a slutÃ¢â¬ . These kinds of words can be heard over the radio and seen in movies and televisions, for instance, the use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"bitchÃ¢â¬ in reference to women can be seen in wrestling programs exposed young children to witness it without supervision. Advertisements also promote gender biasness as they mostly include women in a sexual way to sell product. A study on advertisements showed that males are only seen in 25% of the advertisements on scantily wears, for example,Ã underwear advertisements. The same study quoted that roughly 62% of white women were noticed in the same kind of advisements and the figure for black women was 53% only. Also, black women were mostly shown in animal prints and in predatory poses to highlight their powerlessness . Thus, mass media is openly bias towards the sexes and races of different kinds of people. Besides its other disadvantages, mass media is known to lead young children to aggressive violence. Media violence is harmful to kids because of their inability to differentiate between reality and fantasy. A study showed that by the age of 18, an average teen ager has viewed approximately 200000 acts of violence on television, ignoring other sources of mass media. These violent clips increase aggressiveness and anti social behavior in children and it also increases their thirst for violence in the real life. Hence children are traumatized by the violent images and as a result they end up committing violent acts themselves. In conclusion, it is clearly argued that mass media has both advantages and disadvantages. The issues that are discussed in this essay evidently suggest that the disadvantage of mass media outweighs the advantages yet some of the disadvantages of mass media can be avoided.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Yellow Pages Scam Keeps on Taking While the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"yellow pagesÃ¢â¬ scam comes and goes, a new group of Canada-based telemarketers is now attacking U.S. small businesses, nonprofits, churches and even local governments, according to complaints filed by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). How the Scam Works The Ã¢â¬Å"yellow pagesÃ¢â¬ scam calls sound so innocent: Somebody calls your organization saying they simply need to confirm your contact information for a business directory. What could possibly go wrong? They never asked for money, right? Whether they mention money are not, you are soon sent an invoice demanding you pay hundreds of dollars for your new listing in an online Ã¢â¬Å"yellow pagesÃ¢â¬ directory Ã¢â¬â not at all something you ever asked for or wanted. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay, the scammers will often play you recordings Ã¢â¬â sometimes doctored Ã¢â¬â of the initial call to Ã¢â¬Å"proveÃ¢â¬ that you or your employees had approved the charges. If that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do the trick, the companies start calling you repeatedly to Ã¢â¬Å"remindÃ¢â¬ you of things like legal fees, interest charges and credit ratings. According to the FTC, the companies would go so far as posing as debt collection agencies, offering to stop the harassing calls in return for a fee. Ã¢â¬Å"In the face of threats,Ã¢â¬ said the FTC, Ã¢â¬Å"many people just paid.Ã¢â¬ FTC Files Charges In separate complaints, the FTC charged Montreal-based telemarketing firms; Online Local Yellow Pages; 7051620 Canada, Inc.; Your Yellow Pages, Inc.; and OnlineYellowPagesToday.com, Inc., with running Ã¢â¬Å"yellow pagesÃ¢â¬ scams targeting businesses in the United States. How to Protect Your Business The FTC recommended four ways you can protect your business from the Ã¢â¬Å"yellow pagesÃ¢â¬ scam: Train your staff: Ã Educate employees on how the scam works and how to recognize dangerous calls. Check the BBB: Always check the calling companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation out for free on the Better Business BureauÃ¢â¬â¢s website. Inspect your invoices: Consider implementing a purchase order review system to ensure you are only paying for services you requested. File a Complaint: If you suspect you have been contacted by a scammer or start getting bogus bills, file complaints with both the FTC at ftc.gov/complaint and with the BBB. Ã¢â¬Å"Businesses and other organizations should train their staff to hang up on cold calls about business directory services,Ã¢â¬ said Jessica Rich, Director of the FTCÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau of Consumer Protection in a press release. Ã¢â¬Å"Report them to the FTC. We can pursue these cases even if the scammers hide in another country.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Julius Caeser.txt Essays - Ancient Rome, Roman Republic, Free Essays Julius Caeser Gaius Julius Caesar, a patrician and noble, became one of the most powerful men in Ancient Roman history. Caesar was a populare1, and eventually became the people's hero. His leadership qualities gained him the consulship of 59 B.C., and eventually perpetual dictatorship. Caesar's acquired power soon became immense, and soon the ruling class began to fear his power. This wealth of power brought back images of the ruthless Roman monarchy, abolished centuries before, in 510 B.C. Caesar presided over the military, politics and religion; it allowed him to virtually control Rome. And, it was eventually Caesar's power which led to his demise on the Ides Of March in 44BC. CAESAR'S POWER Caesar gained power in three main areas which dominated Roman life. He acquired power in politics and the government, in religion2, and in the military3. Using his power in these posts, his established a form of rule through which he could control many aspects of Roman life. On July 25th, 46B.C., Julius Caesar secured the office of Dictator4 for ten years. It was here, that Caesar found his power to preside over others, and where he became passionately hated by the Roman ruling class. As dictator, Caesar had secured the power of an absolute ruler. Earlier that year, he had been given Censorial powers, as the 'Director Of Public Morals' (praefectura morum)5. The dictatorship now meant that he had the powers of all the other offices in the Cursus Honorum.6 Caesar wanted to make reforms to improve life in Rome. However, he needed the Senate's help to pass legislation. The Senate had been one of the main problems for Caesar's predecessors. They had obstructed the passage of laws which would have benefited the state. However, Caesar was determined to not be presided over by the Senate. The civil war against Pompey had taken a toll on the Senate. Many of Pompey's supporters who were Senators, had been killed in battle. In addition, Caesar had increased the number of Senators from five to six hundred, to about nine hundred. To fill the vacant seats, he selected the Senators from a range of places7 and occupations. The new senators were all supporters of Caesar8, and vastly outnumbered the old senators.9 Effectively, the Senate became nothing more than a puppet of Caesar's power. As Caesar was dictator, his Imperium power was greater than any of the magistrates, even the consuls. He had gained many rights, as dictator which also allowed him to control the magistrates, and their elections. During Caesar's rule, elections into office proceeded as normal. However, he had passed legislation which allowed him to control the elections10, whereby his suggestions were always acknowledged. In this manner, many of his colleagues were rewarded with posts as magistrates. Prior to Caesar, the consuls had been the most respected and powerful of the political magistracies. Now, it had been turned into an insignificant parody of its former use. Cicero makes comment about the way in which Caesar had converted political office into a 'sad joke' - "At one o'clock, Caesar announced the election of a consul to serve until 1 January - which was the next morning. So I can inform you that in Canninus' consulship, nobody had lunch. Still, nothing untoward occurred while he was consul: such was his vigilance that throughout his consulship, he did not sleep a wink!" 11 His further comment, also showed his opinion of what Caesar had turned the political magistracies into: "...you could not help but weep... there are countless similar instances.12" The dictatorship was the one thing which was constitutional about Caesar's rule. However, "in him [Caesar], the awed respect for constitutional niceties with which so many of his fellow Romans were imbued, seems to have been totally lacking.13" And then in February of 44BC, he was named Dictatus Perpetuus. Being dictator for life, now meant that Rome had effectively reverted to absolute control - what the republicans had feared for. His term as dictatus perpetuus also granted him rights which made him invulnerable to constitutional safeguards. Now, the veto of the tribunes14 couldn't affect his legislation or decisions. One of the safeguards of the constitution of the Republic had been removed15; and thus autocracy became one step closer. DICTATOR, AUTOCRAT & MONARCH ? Caesar's
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Houston, Texas. Three Ethnic Groups and Background - Assignment Example Only New York City and Washington, D.C. can claim that level of diversity in terms of different ethnic groups who call the city home. Before talking about how the educational system in the area deals with the multicultural makeup of the student body, it is helpful to first understand the importance of identifying the melting pot that Houston has become. Some estimates have upwards of 90 languages being spoken in the area, which is in itself considerable. More than just ethnic groups, however, the diversity in Houston can be seen in the various lifestyles that the people exhibit. Houston is considered to be one of the more liberal urban areas in Texas, even hosting a sizable gay pride parade. All of these various factors necessitate that educators in the area implement a pan to create a truly multicultural classroom and encourages intercultural communication (Nieto & Bode, 2012). That plan is the basis for this paper. Community Demographics Houston is home to almost every major ethnic group imaginable. From the countries of Asia, to the outer reaches of Africa, and most countries in Latin America, one is likely to encounter an individual from another ethnic group just by going about daily life. All of these various groups, naturally, have children in schools throughout the area. Some areas are more ethnic than others, creating an especially dire need for educators well versed in multicultural education. Houston, for example, has separate and distinct Chinatowns in different parts of the city. One area has such a high population of Vietnamese and Chinese residents that the street sings are dual language in order to provide deeper intercultural communication. Given HoustonÃ¢â¬â¢s proximity to Mexico and other Southwestern states that have a high population of Latino residents, various areas of the city of heavily minority based. Individuals from Latin American have a distinct culture that contributes to the richness of HoustonÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity, yet presents th e need for educators and citizens alike to be ready to understand and accept multiple ethnic groups within any one social setting. In any given classroom throughout the city, one is likely to find a mix of students from multiple ethnic and language groups. While it is true that many Latin American students share a common language, the rising percentage of Asian students in the community creates a unique problem of having multiple languages represented under one room. Whereas current ELL programs are historically focused on helping the Spanish speaker, for example, teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s are now needed to adding their methodologies to reach all students using the English language as the medium, while developing strategies to assist the multitude of language groups present in the city (Bobadilla, 2013). Three Ethnic Groups and Background Vietnamese Students Consider the many Vietnamese students I know around the Houston area. In order to better understand their particular needs in the class room, it is helpful to first comprehend the reality of their daily life. Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in Southeast Asia. In addition, the educational system in the country is considered substandard, when measured up against much of Asia, and indeed the West. So, students from Vietnam are often at a comparative disadvantage to other students on many fronts. First, they are adjusting to a culture that is entirely foreign to them. Whereas Houston has taken on many components of the Latino culture (thereby making Spanish speaking students fell a bit more at home), that luxury does not exist for the Vietnamese in our
Friday, November 1, 2019
How can the challenges for business start-ups in China be overcome - Essay Example It is evident from the study that there are many challenges that start up businesses would face in China which include complexities within the political, economic, social cultural and technological factors of the business environment in this country. The complexity theory in the practice of business management demonstrates that chaos within the business environment that challenges entrepreneurs especially for starting businesses. To ensure that a start up business grows and thrives in the China, entrepreneurs must put in consideration all the challenging factors in decision making. According to Alexandru and Gabriela, entrepreneurs who plan to venture into doing business in China should be aware of the challenges which are likely to be faced in the Chinese society and their implication on the success of the business venture. Lowe & Marriott add that the social factor and the culture of the Chinese people is a very strong force in determining the performance of a business especially v entures by foreign investors. The political factors in addition to economic environment are apparent determinants of the success of a business within this country. China is one of the leading technological innovators in the world and modern technology and computer applications and systems are being applied in business functions within the country and therefore the technology factor is most likely to influence the success of a business venture in the country as explained by. ... 43). The challenges that starting business in China are many and therefore entrepreneurs should be prepared head on if their businesses are to grow. The complexity theory describes a business startup as one which is faced with chaos and many external factors which are determinants of the survival of a business investment. CRITICAL EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION Cultural and Language Barriers Bergsten (2008) asserts that there are cultural and language barriers which would be very challenging to entrepreneurs wishing to start business in this country. Foreigners who plan to start business in China will certainly have difficulties during business negotiations due to language barrier (Chen & Miller, 2011). It would be appropriate therefore for entrepreneurs who start businesses in China to learn basic Chinese which would be adequate for business communications. Additionally, starting up a business in China will mean that the entrepreneurs leans basic social communication skill s so that the relationship with local employees or business partners would be enhanced. Chandra & Chao (2011, p. 55) say that the Chinese culture is very old and complex and may challenge entrepreneurs who plan to start business in this society. The culture of the Chinese will influence the ability of an entrepreneur of building business relationships. Therefore, entrepreneurs should learn about the Chinese culture to ensure that they do not violate it which would impact negatively on the business as demonstrated by Isenberg (2008, p. 107). The complexities of language and culture affect issues such as greetings, gender roles, leadership and business management which are congruent
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Immunization and Antibody Production Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Immunization and Antibody Production - Assignment Example In encountering the antigen, the body can only do so through natural situations or artificial. In the natural situation, we consider attack by antigen of specific ailment such as small pox. The antigen will cause clinical symptoms and the body will react by producing antibodies against the small pox. In the artificial antibody production, not the virulent form of the antigen are used but those that are killed or attenuated and have no ability to caused clinical symptoms unless one is immune compromised (Goldsby 2005). Antibody Formation There is no difference whether antibodies are naturally produced or artificially produced, there will only be difference in the antigen part, this is because that antigen of the natural simulation are real and do cause clinical symptoms. Those of artificial stimulation are not able to cause clinical symptoms since they do nit have the virulent parts but structurally resembles the real antigen. Given the fact that antibodies are simply modified globuli n, their formation is closely relate to that which involves globulin formation (Goldsby 2005). The first step involves the antigen being held at the site where antibodies are being produced and synthesis of the antibody will be initiated around the site where antigen molecule is found.... In the contrary, if the forces between the ends of the chain and that to the antigen are weak, it will necessitate the release of one end of the antibody from the antigen since it will dissociate (Lydyard and Whelan 2011). The dissociation of one end of the chain from the antigen will make the centre of the chain to coil forming a more stable configuration that will results in to a complete antibody. The eventual process is the dissociation of the antibody from the antigen and floats away as a free antibody. Once the antibody has been formed, it is memorized into the body and in case of second attack with the same antigen; there will be numerous production of the antibody that always leads to faster clearance of the antigen hence faster recovery from the antigenic attack. 2. Evaluate the effects of mass immunization programmers Immunization is the introduction of attenuated or killed antigens into the body of healthy persons such that the body can be triggered to produce in response, antibodies that will combat live antigens of the same nature in future. Vaccines are very specific and when one is immunized a gains a certain disease; they only become protected against that disease and not any other. Immunization can be active or passive depending on the nature of the antigen that are used to make the body respond through antibody production (Plotkin 2006). Immunization is therefore scheduled when there s an outbreak of a disease in the offing. Mass immunization is therefore an immunization program that is intended for a large number of people within one or several places in relatively short time. Mass immunization is therefore able to provide control for contagious diseases that are envisaged
Monday, October 28, 2019
Secondary labor market Essay Many Liberal feminists believe that gender role of socialization is the major reason for sexual division of labor. The main act which is responsible for this change is because of the activities and nurturing that is been followed right from the home of the girl or the boy. At homes there is mainly manipulation and canalization where in girls or boys are forced to use things or do acts which are gender specific. For example, a girl is assumed and encouraged to be emotional and caring while a boy should be brave and strong at heart. In certain cases, a woman is still expected to be associated with the typical roles of a housewife / mother which restricts her from being a career oriented individual. Most of the time they take a back seat for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing , because they have been nurtured from home to be the nurses of the family and are known to be the maternal nurses. According to Marxist feminist, these inequalities will end once capitalism ends. Racial discrimination starts from home in the relationship between a wife and a husband. The way men would behave with women at work is directly related in majority of cases with their behavior with women at home. There are different reasons for gender inequalities. The reason is not always that a woman is forced to remain at home but in most of the cases she chooses to be. But most of the feminists deny this theory as they feel this inequality is due to the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude then mere womenÃ¢â¬â¢s choices. Even in instances where in a women may be career oriented but still will be differentiated based on the salary front. Women are also considered to be slow at work and less committed and unskilled which prevents them in the eyes of the employer to take on higher posts. There are two kinds of labor market that exists, Primary labor market which comprises of managerial and professional workers and Secondary labor market comprises of unskilled and semi skilled workers. Most of the instances show that if a women have taken a 5 year break from their career for their children then getting back in the job industry will be very difficult for her as she is considered to be less skilled for the same job. Hence they are restricted to be promoted at higher levels of the management. Employers consider women as a reserve or a back up labor force in companies as they will recruit them only if they have certain less skilled jobs to be carried out. Shifts in the gender inequalities are mainly differentiated based on ethnic groups, age and geographical regions. The expectations according to UK labor are that women will be Ã¢â¬Å"individualizedÃ¢â¬ and will be economically better advanced. But still women are disproportionately employed as part time employers and are sometimes not paid even. Certain studies show that production and reproduction are required for the existence of human society but for women to bear children is incompatible. Low fertility of women, maternal responsibilities often are the causes of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s underachievement compared to men at the working place.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
The Bell Jar Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The book starts with the setting in New York as the main character is pondering the execution of the Rosenbergs. Esther the main character is in New York because of contest held by a fashion magazine. While in New York Esther tells about her life by the encounters she's had. She is a college student and is in the honors courses. The whole trip to New York had messed up Esters way of thinking. For example before she went to New York she had planed to finish college and become a poet or English professor, but now she had no idea. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Esther returned home she became very depressed. She wanted to disregard the whole New York experience by taking a exclusive summer writing course. Only the best of the best writers had been able to be excepted to this class and Esther was sure she had made it until her mother had told her she was not accepted. This was what pushed Esther over the edge. She became more and more obsessed about how she would kill herself and planed it out carefully. When the time came she just couldn't do it. So she began to preoccupied herself by thinking of other ways of death. She couldn't sleep or read this bothered her because she loved to read. Finally she went to see a doctor who gave her shock treatments. This made Esther even worse an so she slipped even deeper into her depressed state. She knew the bell jar was almost completely apon her and there was nothing she could do to prevent...
Thursday, October 24, 2019
What does Zora Neal Hurston identify as the Ã¢â¬Å"Characteristics of Negro Expression?Ã¢â¬ In 1933, Zora Neil Hurston wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Characteristics of Negro ExpressionÃ¢â¬ to frame the Negro or African-American as she saw him. She saw the results of the Great Migration as terrifying and spasmodic, unbearably inhumane and devastating to those left behind. For Hurston, rural black people were being forgotten; disappearing amidst the heady enthusiasm of the urban New Negro Movement. In HurstonÃ¢â¬â¢s essay she describes the different concepts of what it meant to be a black American in the South. She sees the new Negro as encompassing theses elements: being dramatic, having the will to adorn, being angular, asymmetrical, dancing, folkloric, having originality, mimicry, non-reserve, having a peculiar dialect, and hanging out at the jook or pleasure house. These are just a few of the compositional elements used to described the forgotten Negro in the south. By reexamining HurstonÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, critiques will have a proper understanding of these social characteristics and will have a better understanding of the African-American in relation to his identity. Hurston was part of the Ã¢â¬Å"Talented Tenth,Ã¢â¬ an elite group of well educated African-American professionals who argued that the mission of establishing black identity and thus gaining social acceptance and economic and political stability would be vitally strengthened through arts and letters. HurstonÃ¢â¬â¢s work and criticism have helped to shape the manner in which black American artists and academics view themselves. Also how they emphasize humanness inherent in black people through referencing the diversity of voices and talents in black America in the South, as well as their essential connection through Ã¢â¬Å"legacyÃ¢â¬ to the African continent. Hurston begins her essay with the first characteristic of the southern Negro expression Ã¢â¬Å"Drama,Ã¢â¬ in which she describes almost every phase of African-American existence as being Ã¢â¬Å"highly dramatizedÃ¢â¬ (Hurston 296), She further states that Ã¢â¬Å"No matter how joyful or how sad the case there is sufficient poise for dramaÃ¢â¬ (Caponi 294). To this end, Hurston realizes that African-Americans and their daily experiences are in time and history,Ã dramatic collective repetitions that are repeated and multiplied many times in many art forms, but why?. As African-Americans live, most naturally leave a mark on most things they come in contact with. For example, Picasso was dramatically influenced by African people and their art on his trip to Africa. His trip was the precursor to the formation of Cubism. Consequently this clearly demonstrates that the African and his presence, usually dramatic, is a phenomenon of their being in the universe, in which other wish to document. Thus, it is up to the artist to find the terms and pictures that will simply clarify those experiences and knowledge for the critic who does not or could not understand what is or was happening to African-Americans, and to future critics who will need to be warned and directed in terms from inside the level we call Africanisms. Another phenomenon and striking characteristic expression of African-Americans in the south is Ã¢â¬Å"Angularity.Ã¢â¬ Hurston states, Ã¢â¬Å"Everything he touches becomes angular.Ã¢â¬ For example, his furniture is set at an angle, pictures are hung at angles, and even his posture in dance is constantly at different angles. In almost every expression of life, most African-Americans refuse to be traditional. Brenda Gottchild posits that this is part of African aesthetics when African Americans Ã¢â¬Å"refuse to be traditional.Ã¢â¬ (Gottchild 13) In the section on Ã¢â¬Å"Will to Adorn,Ã¢â¬ Hurston sees the African-American as reinventing the English language to suit himself and having his revision accepted by the Ã¢â¬Å"southern ruling class white man.Ã¢â¬ Hurston views the greatest of this revision as the use of metaphors and similes (thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a rope), the double descriptive (high-tall), verbal nouns (funeralize) and nouns from verbs (she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t take listen). Hurston argues that whatever African-Americans do in violation to the normalcy of life he beautifies. Writer and dance enthusiast commented in Brenda GottchildÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"African-Americans blend the impossible and create beautyÃ¢â¬ (Gottchild 14). Ã¢â¬Å"This beautification, this revisioning is then accepted by white Americans and assimilated into their vernacularÃ¢â¬ ( Hurston 301). The impact of Ã¢â¬Å"Asymmetry,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DancingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"FolkloreÃ¢â¬ are discussed as the nextÃ three characteristics of Negro expression. In Ã¢â¬Å"AsymmetryÃ¢â¬ Hurston looks into African art and comments that the sculpture and carvings of the African-American artist are full of beauty and at the same time lack symmetry. Additionally, she sees this characteristic encompassing literature, poetry and dancing. Hurston states Ã¢â¬Å"It is the lack of symmetry which makes Negro dancing so difficult for white dancers to learnÃ¢â¬ (297). Gottchild concurs with Hurston stating Ã¢â¬Å"Movement may emanate from any part of the body, and two or more centers may operate simultaneously.Ã¢â¬ For example, African-American dance may seem difficult at times but most poses give the impression that the dancer will do much more. In most art forms the African-American is not trying to do all that is conceivable, he is merely giving a realistic suggestion of what is possible. Nothing shows what is possible more than African-Americans willingness to adapt folklore to suit his own use. While most people view folklore as a thing of the past, Hurston examines folklore as something Ã¢â¬Å"still in the makingÃ¢â¬ and talks about the cultural roles of God, the Devil, John Henry and Jack, the greatest culture hero of the south. In the framework of her story Jack has the ability to outsmart the Devil when it seems that Ã¢â¬Å"God is absolutely no match for himÃ¢â¬ (Hurston 299). JackÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to outwit the Devil places him in the company of other prominent culture icons. To this end, Hurston is able to show that African folklore is not works of imitation but innovation. By recognizing the characteristics of Negro expression, Hurston identifies in her essay an understanding that if black artist are to have anything in their own image and according to their own views, African-Americans will have to have a say in which plays, dances, and folklore are in those images. The final characteristics that Hurston focuses on are: Ã¢â¬Å"Originality,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Imitation,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Absence of the Concept of PrivacyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Jook.Ã¢â¬ According to Hurston the African-American is the most copied individual on the face of the planet yet it is still said that he lacks originality. His art, music, plays and style are subjects of examination and commodification. Hurston argues, Ã¢â¬Å"While he lives and moves in the midst of white civilization, everything he touches is reinterpreted for his own useÃ¢â¬ (Hurston 310). InÃ terms of Ã¢â¬Å"ImitationÃ¢â¬ the African-American is not an imitator but a duplicator. If he chooses to imitate, it is because he wishes to and not because he wished to be like the one imitated. Historically, there is no Ã¢â¬Å"Concept of PrivacyÃ¢â¬ in the African village. So it is believed that African-Americans kept nothing secret. Thus he keeps nothing in reserve and every aspect of his life is shared with his communal and biological family. HurstonÃ¢â¬â¢s essay is important because while framing the architecture of the forgotten African-Americans in the South, she retells the narrative of the African men and women which sought to be original in every form of art. She provides her readers with a true representation of the social characteristics of the African-American culture in the South. Hurston directly puts them in the open for all to critique. HurstonÃ¢â¬â¢s essay gives the reader a clear picture of African-Americans living in the South during the Harlem Renaissance, as well as, their forgotten identity and connects their traits neatly to many African art genres we see today.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Air Pollution Observation between Hong Kong and Chongqing Part 1 General Picture of Hong Kong and Chongqing and Meaning of Comparing A whole host of similarities between Hong Kong and Chongqing make this thesis's aiming to exploit air pollution and approaches governments take more pragmatic and meaningful. Among the aforementioned similarities, the geographical ones could be treated as lurking causes of air pollution and other relative issues. Hence, this part is intended to showcase a general delineation of this aspect of things in common.The cities of Chongqing and Hong Kong are both located at hilly areas that are highly opulated, with buildings and major highways located very close to slopes and earth- retaining structures. Landslides and rockfalls are very common in both cities, and large expenditures are being incurred by both Governments on the investigation, design and implementation of mitigation and preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of the loss of life and econom ic losses due to landslides. Both Hong Kong and Chongqing have a humid subtropical climate.Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. Summer is when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or andslides. Winters are mild and usually start sunny, becoming cloudier towards February; the occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring, which can be changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year, while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36. oc (97. 0 OF) and 0. 0 oc (32. 0 OF), respectively. On the other hand, known as one of the Ã¢â¬Å"Three FurnacesÃ¢â¬ of the Yangtze River, Chongqing has a monsoon- nfluenced humid subtropical climate, and for most of the year experiences very humid conditions. Besides, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 oc (91 to 93 OF) in July and August in the urban area. Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. Because the city's location is in the Sichuan Basin, Chongqing has one of the lowest annual sunshine nationally.The fgure is only 1,055 hours, which is much lower than some nations of Northern Europe. (Wikipedia: Chongqing) Chongqing is adjacent to northeast part of Sichuan province, and the area of this city is over 23,000 km2 with 5million population. Chongqing is one of the most polluted cities in China: from 1981 to 1996, S02 (Sulfur Dioxide) emissions were about 800,000 tons, and TSP (Total Suspended Particulates) emissions were about 200,000 tons per year. The daily concentration of S02 reached to 0. 26-0. 49mg/m3, which is 3-7 times higher than the Class II national standard of air quality