Friday, March 29, 2019

Impact of Globalisation on the Nation-State

Impact of Globalisation on the Nation-StateIntroductionThe coerions of globalisation use up perform topics which argon in the great demand. Especiall(a)y with the developing of key bring outing and technology and the form of global thrift, the global affairs choose become to a greater extent and more complicated. It is hard to distinguish the internal affairs and remote affairs. People found that the distances between contrasting countries ar shorter than before. After the chilliness War, a great amount of countries publish their economic policies to develop their economies. seize American el yetth September for manikin, 11th September is an event that brand-new York America attacked by the terrorists. However, the global aviation, finance, technology all has been affected as well as the international business. Even the central banks in largely countries take a leak taken the action of decreasing the interests to pay off the effects of 11th September non to be so serious. Those phenomenon show that globalization has exploitation rapidly, and has deeply influent the emergence and vicissitude of the situation of global governance and miserliness. To observe it deeply, various countries and institutions have different influences. As the matter of fact, it is to around completion a blood of ready and lost. Whatever the existence of globalization or the debates of scholars on globalization, those all illustrate that globalization is a development of serve up. However, the importance of globalization has already drawn the attention of countries.This essay go forth be divided into three partitionings. Firstly, the definition of globalization forget be analysed. Through the comp ar of different definitions, a clear sense of globalization leave behind come out. After that the process of globalization will be briefly introduced from most aspects, the geography and succession period, the global sparing and glossiness and politics. Secondly, nation-state will be discussed. In this section, five aspects will be analysed. This section includes the definition of nation-state, the influence of politics, prudence and civilisation on nation-state. Moreover, the role of media in global condition will be discussed. Thirdly, this essay will discuss if globalization destroy the nation-state or non. Then finally a closing curtain will be become.globalizationWhat is globalization?globalization could be argued to be a process, which the flow of substances and record products destroy the area and the boundaries of countries, and effect the battalions feel around every corner of the earth. The globalization to a fault includes the immigrations.It could be seen from the table, it is not easy to define what globalization is. It is a phenomenon which influenced nations life. Based on Busch (2009), globalization is a continuing process of intensity not completely the sparing, only also finis, social life and polit ics. From the definition above, it could be argued that the definition of globalisation could be analysed into two parts. The first bingle is the space. As the Buschs and Waters view, globalization means that the boundaries of countries are being decreased. Although this does not mean the compression of geography, it is the economy and ending stupefy the distances between different countries decreased. Secondly, it is fewthing about relationships. Robertson (1995) indicated that the conflict and maven of homogeneity and heterogeneity make globalization. The globalization makes the people from all over the homo acquiring more and more close in culture, economy and politics. The countries are more relied on each round former(a).The process of globalizationBasi echoy, the process of globalization could be divided into three moments. The first hotshot is in geography filed. The first emergence of globalization could be dated clog to 1492 A.D. according to Butzer (1992), the Eu ropean encounter discover the American continent. Then after(prenominal) a period of time, Britain colonized India, the world has changed from a large graduated table to small size. The second moment, Holton (1998) indicated that from 1960s the advent of globalization has more developed. The wrangling globalization and global village are newly added into the dictionary. obtain American foe exercise, in the post-1945 ear, American constructed a hegemonic coordinate (Ikenberry, 2007). To some extent it could not be denied that the hegemonic order of America pushed the economic globalization at heart the global condition. The third moment is after the history steps into the twenty-first century more opportunities are produced to people, so that the people flow fuck up the countries to seek more comfortable life. However, this might be harmful to some of the countries. For instance, the U.S. was the most opened uncouth in the world before tenth September 2001. On 11th Septembe r 2001, the U.S. has been attacked by terrorists. After that Americas butt against was quite closed (Alden, 2008).The widely discussions of globalization is the global economy. Based on Wills, Samli and Jacobs (1997), the world economy is trending globally. And there are three major economy regions in the world, the European Union, the North American Free Trade organisation (NAFTA) and the Pacific Rim (Bennett, 1995). The economic groups indicated that the economy in each body politic has more closed. assimilation and politics globalization are also notable. leave American culture for example, because of the development of technology, the communication within the world is getting easier and easier. Movies which are made by Hollywood are very noteworthy among the countries. Now Hollywood movies are trying to absorb the actors from different countries to gain more global audience (Robertson, 1995). However, politics are more closed with economy. The hegemonic order which constr ucted by America, the policies which published, most of them are aims to support the development of economy.Nation-stateWhat is nation-state?harmonize to Grossberg (2006), nation-state could be argued to provide some securities for people, much(prenominal) as economic, social and physical. Grossbegy (2006) went merely that nation-state also means that the sovereign is under control of its own lead or people, but not under control of some other external aspects. It could be identified that nation-state is a semipolitical community. Within the nation-state, the country has the power to set up its own laws to make sure its territorial reserve autonomy is integrated and political sovereignty is not encroach by some other countries else. The social cohesion within a nation-state has its droll society. Moreover, the people in a nation-state share the same culture, religion manner of speaking and so on.The influence of politics on nation-state.Politics has great influences on nation- state. Politics is an activity and relations. Politics could be seen as the treatment of the relationship between people. Vitally, politics could influent the nation-state economy. Without a steady, health condition of political atmosphere, the economy will not be developed. outlet Japan for example in the years of Meiji era, the organisation gave the great support for the economy. therefore, Japan became richer and richer. At that time, the government encouraged people to develop the economy the policies the government made were more focalise on economy. Many companies have grown fast. As Ikenberry (2007) indicated after the founding War ?, the leaders of America made umpteen efforts to rebuild the trade, investment and currency. Although those politicise helped America to construct is hegemonic order it could not be denied that those policies made the American economy quickly recovered. Moreover, the governors should fully record the economy. If the government mis apprehend the economy, the politics they made will destroy the economy. For example, if a country import a foreign product at a very low price, even lower than the internal price, some people in the same filed within the nation-state will lost their job.The influence of economy on nation-state.The economy influenced the nation-state as well. As the matter of fact that the nation-state economy influent the politics and culture within the nation-state. As Grossberg (2007) indicated that the nation-state has more concentrate on the sovereign and territorial autonomy. However, the economy is the basic construction which could shape if people within the nation-state have a better life or not. Altschull (1997) argued that there are four basic patterns which influence media ownership angiotensin-converting enzyme of the four patterns is commercial aspect. From here, it could be seen economy has influenced each part in the nation-state. Economy also influences the national culture. there was an old saying in Chinese culture only you have enough diet, you could have time to pay attention on your behaviours. People have enough food they could do their jobs well or not resist the government. If a scientist is supperless and no food to eat, he would probably not continue doing his research. If a litterateur does not have enough food to eat, he has to do some physical work, such as cultivation. He would probably not write those literatures. Without the development of economy, the society members have to cultivate themselves, the society, even the nation-state could not be developed.The influence of culture on nation-state. last could be argued as the spirit of the nation-state. People in the same nation-state share the same history, religion, address and so on. It is utter that, for a person, his fortune is decided by his personality. The culture could be compared with the personality of a country. Thus, culture could by the actions and response when a country faced some pr oblems. Culture could affect peoples lifestyle (Evans, Jamal, and Foxall, 2009). Take Japan for example according to Lebra (1974), the spirit of Japanese culture is to delight in the person who is perfectly capable. They do not have any sympathizes for the wreakers. Therefore, if one wants to get some respect from other Japanese, the first thing to do is to become stronger. It could not be denied that become strong so as to gain identify of the world. Apart from the correct or incorrect of this spirit in the ethic field of Japan, only concentrate on the development of the nation-state is beneficial to Japanese society. Under this culture, Japan could become more and stronger. Culture could be inherited. Therefore culture would influence the idea of a nation. A perfect culture passed on generation by generation, the later government will become strong and well developed.The role of media in the wearing away of nation-state.Media actually helped globalization to shock the national c ulture, however the globalization of media make the distances of countries shorter and shorter. Firstly, the globalization of media threatens the national culture. As Doyle (2002) indicated that the trends of international media id expansion and the press are controlled by large companies. Sreberny (2000) argued that after American hegemonic order, American values are now stepping into to the hearts and minds of the Third World countries. Take Hollywood movies for example as it mentioned in previous sections, Hollywood movies have now apply more people with different nationalities to act and produces the movies so as to clear more audiences for outside the U.S. However, the American do not full understand other countries cultures, there always have some misunderstandings in the movies to make other countries people feel uncomfortable. Moreover, with the development of technology, televisions are widely spread. beam television could receive hundreds of channels. Young people could learn another culture from the television but for their own culture, it might be fade. However, the globalization of media makes the distances of countries shorter and shorter. As mentioned above, the development of technology, more families have television. Through television programs, people could learn more things. Especially after the invention of computer and internet, all the education from each country could be checked from them. This made peoples life more comfortable.Has globalization destroyed nation-state?Globalization has not destroyed nation-state.Globalization brings numerous benefits to the world. Some people believed that globalization helped myopic people from developing countries out of the poor conditions. Because globalization helped the developing countries opened their markets. Ikenberry (2007) pointed out that after the World War ?, American leaders have promoted to recovered the economy by publishing a series of policies to set up an open strategy of busi ness, investment and currency. The price of labour in developing countries is much cheaper than developed countries. Therefore, many multinationals have been set up, and provided more job opportunities to the local people. Take chinaware for example, the expending of employment in multinationals have helped many poor Chinese out of poverty. According to Bardhams (2006) research people who live in the rural areas whose daily living cost under $1 per daytime were decreased from 79% to 27% in chinaware from 1981 to 2001. China is a socialism country, but introduced capitalist business methods in 1987 (Bennett, 1995), and opened its markets to other countries to developed its economy. The capitalist business methods have made great achievements to China. There is another good example from Bangladesh Barfham (2006) did an interview of a woman call Rahana Chandhuri who works in garment export factories. She said there are many women work in the garment export factories. Although the j ob is not fair, compare with other people, she still earns much money. A research shows that 86% of women work in the garment industry and their average monthly income are more than their neighbourhoods (Bardham, 2006). Globalization weakens the barriers of geography, but closes the link between different countries. Slagnt, Harben and Pallant (2006) argued that all the countries could share the materials all over the world. People in different countries could demoralize whatever they want in the local supermarkets and the materials for industry used also could be import and export easily. Fro example, Chinese students who studies could buy Chinese training ingredients in Tesco, and in U.K.s stores, it is not hard to find any products which said made in China. In addition, the development of transportation makes the distance of different countries shorter and shorter. For instance, in the past it might take years to travel from China to Britain. However, now from Beijing to capital of the United Kingdom, it only takes less than 10hours by direct flight. Globalization of economy bring many benefits to the countries within the world, so as the culture. lock take Hollywood movies for example,, many people with different nationalities work together to produce movies suitable for the audience from all over the world.Globalization has destroyed nation-state.Globalization also brings many disadvantages to the nation-state. Firstly, for example, after the multinationals enter the developing countries, it could not be denied that human is greedy, in order to make more money, the owners of export and import factories even hired children work for them. Based on Bardhams (2006) research, in Bangladesh, the garment export factories used to hire children to work for them because children is much cheaper than boastful labours. If the owners of those factories employed children work for them they will gain more profits. In 1993, the U.S. has prohibited on importing produ cts using children labour, the garment dismissed about 50000 children. However, only few of them went back to school, most of them went to stone breaking or even child prostitution. Secondly, the economy of developing countries was helped by large international organisations such as economic groups. Those developing countries need to change something in order to fit those economic groups. It could be easily lost the autonomy of those countries. China enter WTO in 1999, nine hundred laws would need to be changed to suit the world economy (Nolan, 2001). This might be the biggest challenge to Chinese retailers, for they have using the original laws for a long time, the changing of laws might make some of the small retailers go bankrupt. Moreover, changing laws could make China unstrain the autonomy in charting the complex path of economy reform. Thirdly, the globalization of culture destroyed local culture. Islam culture is a unique culture, and different from westward culture. Turn er (2007) argued that the development of global mass communication has influenced the Islam world. It is an extension of westernization, and will weaken the local culture. With the American hegemonic order, the Americanization has appeared many places all over the world. For example, many Chinese students or even adults are huge fans of NBA, a hoops association in America. Those fans even look down upon their own countries basketball game association. Another example, McDonalds are in every part of China. Children like this American fast food than Chinese dishes. Fourthly, incline is using wildly people could travel to any other countries whose native wording are not face however, English is still workable there, the same as Chinese. Since the English and Chinese are widely use all over the world, some language whose native speakers are really few will be endangered. When a language disappeared, the culture will soon disappeared, and could only be finding in the books.Conclusion sThis essay is aiming to discuss if globalization has destroyed nation-state or not. This essay was divided into three parts. The first part focalisationes on globalization. There were many definitions of globalization they are defined from different aspects. From compare different definitions of globalization given by scholars, then an idea of definition of globalization is being cleared. Globalization is not only a pheromone within the world of politics, economy and culture, but also a process. The earliest emergence of globalization could be dated back to the year of 1492. In recent propagation the construction of hegemonic order of America pushes the speed of the globalization. The second part was concentrate on nation-state. Globalization is a kind of process the nation-state is more focus on the political sovereignty and territorial autonomy, social cohesion and culture. Politics, economy and culture all have the influence on nation-state. Media has two sides it has wear o n nation-state, but also makes the distance of countries shorter. The third part discussed if globalization destroyed nation-state or not. Globalization is a sword with two sides. For one aspect, the globalization made the developing countries out of poverty. People in those countries lived in a more comfortable life. Globalization also weakens the barriers of different countries, and makes the think of different countries. The distances of different countries are getting closer. However, globalization made some destroys of nation-state. For example, in some developing countries the factories owners hired children. Some developing countries have to change their laws to enter the economy groups to make more profit, so that those countries will probably loose their autonomy. The widely spread of American culture and English language will make some local culture and language endangered. As mentioned above, globalization is a sword with two sides, if the nation-state makes the proper p olities and protections of culture, the benefits of globalization will make the countries become stronger.ReferencesAlden, E. (2008) The Closing of the American Border Terrorism, Immigration, and bail Since 911, Harper. Pp35-50Altschull, J.H. (1997) Boundaries of Journalistic Autonomy, Berkowitz, D. (eds). Social Meanings of news a text -reader. London Sage. Pp259-268.Bardhan, P (2006, April). Does Globalization Help or Hurt the Worlds Poor? Scientific America, Magazine, online. Retrieved troop 5, 2008, from http//www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=does-globalization-help-o accessed on 31.11.09Beck, U. 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