Saturday, March 30, 2019
Nationalism And Case Study Of Northern Ireland History Essay
patriotism And Case issue Of Yankee Ireland History EssayIntroductionThe concept of patriotism has been influencing domestic and international politics for centuries in various aspects. The predominant role of nationalism and the high inte endure in it has led to extensive literature on the thing and many scholars published hightail its and studies on it in a number of other fields be founts policy-making sciences such(prenominal) as psychology and sociology. As is the look with many political concepts, t here(predicate) argon a number of approaches to the topic of nationalism.The case study shortly discussed here will focus on nationalism in Northern Ireland. patriotism had a major impact on Northern Irish politics and life during the second half of the twentieth century, a time when the rest of Western Europe did not have to face such problems. In a recent issue of The Big Issue journalist and flip over News presenter Dermot Murnaghan writes about how growing up in capi tal of Northern Ireland during the Troubles meant be used to an environment of checkpoints, steel barriers, the army on the way (Murnaghan, 2011). Only after moving to England to study did he realize that the part in Northern Ireland wasnt normal, it was actually very strange. (Murnaghan, 2011)Nationalist tendencies continue to submit actions, behaviour and policies in many if not all parts of the world. A thorough understanding of nationalism, its cums, workings and possible consequences thus is crucial. In the following, this makeup will first discuss the concept of nationalism. The distinction between unalike purposes of the term will be highlighted and the variety of approaches be acknowledged. It will so go on to consider how nationalism influenced the developments in Ireland. In its survive part, the essay will conclude with an answer to the essay question whether nationalism is an radical and exclusivist political political theory that tends towards violence. nat ionalismModern nationalism was born(p) out of anti-enlightenment thought. While ethnic groups have enormous existed, nations were an invention of a time when big empires gave place to the rise of these and the theory of national reign arouse in Europe. In his very influential book Nationalism Elie Kedourie actually describes nationalism as just that a doctrine invented in Europe at the beginning of the nineteenth century that divides humanity into pitchfork and distinct nations and claims that such nations must constitute sovereign advances. (Kedourie, 1961 9, 73) As is the case with every political concept, there are a number of approaches to the topic of nationalism. Arguably the most influential at the moment are the modernisation approach, Marxist/neo-Marxist models and postmodernist ideas.The Dictionary of International Relations fixs cardinal usages of the term nationalism as a characterization of an ideology and a description of a sentiment or attitude (Evans and Newnha m, 1998 346 ff.). The second usage of nationalism describes a sentiment of loyalty towards the nation which is shared by the people. (Evans and Newnham, 1998 346) Religion and language may be possible examples for elements that provide such communality. The first aspect of nationalism tooshie further be split up into two connotations it could either be used as an ideology, a political theory joined to a programme incorporating ultimately attainable goals (OLeary, 1981 4), or political movements and actions motivated by said ideology.Also acknowledged should be that nationalism is and one form of how ethnic groups may react other options include but arent limited to assimilation or pursuance a place within a political system with typical ethnic rights and resources. (OSullivan, 1986 6) Further much, the manifestation of jingoistic tendencies differs from the social status of said group. Whereas in an already existing nation-state a nationalist group would work towards mainta ining inviolate boundaries, nationalist movements such as the Irish Re in the public eye(predicate)an Army work towards separation and independence (OSullivan, 1986 5).While in earlier times nationalist tendencies regularly ended in wars, the expression of radical nationalism in the Western world of today has become terrorist attacks, much as the choler used to operate in Northern Ireland the potential of gaining much public attention with bombings and similar attacks is high.As marked before, nationalism has been the object of much scrutiny. To name only one of many critics of the notion of nationalism, Sir Lewis Namier wrote that nationalism, from the outset, was the expression of social and political maladjustment and has since been at least as much the vehicle as the source of destructive passions (Namier in Kenneth, 1960 499). However, considering its nation-building process and its quest for self-determination, in its chapter on nationalism the Dictionary of International R elations describes nationalism as not only the most potent enduringness in world politics, it is also, judging by mere numbers, the most successful. (Evans and Newnham, 1998 349)The case of Northern IrelandTo understand the current berth in Northern Ireland it is absolutely essential to consider the impact of diachronic events and developments on the Irish island. position invasion of Ireland can be go out back to as early as the twelfth century. Bringing the island two progress but also suppression, opposition to English occupancy can be traced back to these times as well. In the centuries to follow a number of wars strained the region and while most of Britain converted to the church building of England under the rule of Henry VIII, many Irish men and women remained Catholics. Up until the Troubles and possibly sometimes today the religious split of the Northern Irish society is partly to blame for the extent to which attacks were committed. This long history of contact, co nflict, and allowance between the two major ethnic groups (OSullivan, 1986 2), here the English and Irish, is crucial to acknowledge because it lay the groundwork for nationalist feelings that would result in radicalism responsible for(p) for the violent clashes and attacks of a time that today is called the Troubles.Struggle for freedom from English intervention highly influenced developments on the island ever since the beginning of the last millennium. The long on-going struggle had also hardened the fronts on both sides on the side of the Unionists that would prefer to stay loyal to the Crown and whose nationalist feelings are for a future as part of the United acres, but also on the sides of the res publicaans fighting for a separation from the UK and a subsequent reunion with the Republic of Ireland, their nationalist feelings being for a united Ireland.In her book outgrowth World Nationalism, Katherine OSullivan See writes that neo-nationalism movements among Ulsters wor king class Protestants and the separatist efforts of the Irish republican Army belie any claims that increasing modernization and secularization of the state and economy will moderate ethnic cleavages. (OSullivan, 1986 102) A little more than a decade after the publication of this book, however, the Belfast Good Friday accordance was considered by many to have ended the Troubles. Although violence sporadically hush shocks the nation, most paramilitary forces that had previously been involved in violence ceased fortify fighting.ConclusionIn answer to the essay question whether nationalism is an extremist and exclusivist political ideology that tends towards violence it seem of great importance to mention that under the term nationalism much can be understood. at that place is no such thing as one single ideology of nationalism each nationalist group is characterized by certain historical backgrounds and other factors that have an influence on their goals and proceedings. In term s of being exclusivist, it can be said that even though the idea of nationalism is supposed to embrace the people of one nation, the whole concept of it is without a doubt aimed at achieving at least a certain percentage point of separation from another ethnic group, either building up boundaries or focusing on maintaining them. With reference to extremism, for an incident to make front scalawag and come to the attention of many, it has to have reached a certain point in time of tragedy. lots more rarely do meetings of peaceful nationalist groups get cover in the media.However, it is undisputed that in a great number of cases in- and out of doors of Europe nationalist movements led to violence and loss of innocent lives. Nationalism seems to be an ideology more prone to the use of brute force than other political believes are. But as with every ideology, eventually the degree of commitment to and the exclusive belief in the ideals proposed by the ideology and the avidness to us e violence of group members decide the outcome.As to the case of Northern Ireland, the Stormont Assembly has been back in legislature for a couple of days know and although not all violence has ceased, the situation definitely has change greatly compared to a couple of decades ago. Also, devolution processes in the United Kingdom are ongoing and the Assembly in Northern Ireland has a appreciable amount of executive and legislative power today.